Understanding Thyroidectomy Surgery: Types, Procedure, and Aftercare

Thyroidectomy surgery is a medical procedure designed to remove all or part of the thyroid gland, a butterfly-shaped organ located in the neck below the Adam’s apple. This gland plays a crucial role in producing the hormone thyroxine, which controls vital functions such as heart rate, temperature, and growth. In this comprehensive guide, we’ll delve into the types of thyroidectomy, the surgical process, and crucial aftercare measures.

Types of Thyroidectomy

One might undergo thyroidectomy for various reasons, including an enlarged thyroid (goitre) causing difficulty in swallowing or breathing, hyperthyroidism or thyrotoxicosis (an overactive thyroid), or the presence of a lump that could be thyroid cancer. The range of thyroid operations includes a partial thyroidectomy (hemithyroidectomy), or the complete removal of the thyroid gland, known as a total thyroidectomy.

The Surgical Procedure

Thyroidectomies are typically performed under general anesthesia. During the surgery, a skilled general surgeon makes an incision in the front of the neck, approximately 2cm to 3cm above the collarbone. Precision is crucial to avoid damage to the nerves connected to the voice box and the parathyroid glands, located behind the thyroid, which regulate calcium levels in the body. Once the thyroid gland is removed, the incision is carefully stitched to facilitate healing.

After Thyroidectomy

After undergoing a thyroidectomy, it’s essential to be vigilant about potential postoperative symptoms. Any swelling, bleeding, redness, or warmth at the incision site should be monitored closely. Additionally, a fever of 101 degrees or higher, along with numbness or tingling in the face, hands, or lips, warrants immediate attention. If you experience any of these symptoms or have concerns about your thyroidectomy, don’t hesitate to reach out to your healthcare provider.

When to Call Your Healthcare Provider

 Knowing when to contact your healthcare provider after a thyroidectomy is crucial. Reach out if you notice swelling, bleeding, redness, or warmth at the incision site. A fever of 101 degrees or higher, as well as numbness or tingling in your face, hands, or lips, are also warning signs that should prompt a call to your healthcare provider. Open communication with your surgeon is encouraged to address any questions or concerns you may have about your thyroidectomy and its aftermath.

Understanding the nuances of thyroidectomy surgery, from the types and procedures to postoperative care, is vital for individuals facing this medical intervention. By staying informed about potential symptoms and maintaining a proactive line of communication with healthcare providers, individuals can navigate the thyroidectomy process with confidence and ensure a smoother recovery.

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Ali Sulieman Hassan Sulieman
Sasikumar Vallachira Pisharom
Yusuf Gunay
Anju Bhagtana

Preventing and Treating Pyelonephritis (Kidney Infection) Effectively

Pyelonephritis (Kidney Infection) Effectively

Kidney Infection, also known as pyelonephritis, is a serious condition that affects the kidneys and can lead to significant discomfort and complications if left untreated. It occurs when bacteria, commonly from the lower urinary tract, travel up to the kidneys, causing infection and inflammation. Symptoms of pyelonephritis may include high fever, chills, back or abdominal pain, frequent urination, and cloudy or bloody urine. Timely diagnosis is crucial, and healthcare providers often rely on symptoms, medical history, and laboratory tests to identify the infection. Treatment typically involves a course of antibiotics to eliminate the bacteria, and in severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary. Good hygiene practices, staying well-hydrated, and seeking prompt medical attention are essential in preventing and managing this condition.

Understanding Kidney Infection

Understanding the causes and effective management of kidney infections (pyelonephritis) is of utmost importance for our well-being. Knowing the factors that lead to these infections can help us take preventive measures to reduce our risks. Bacterial infections, such as E. coli, are common culprits, and being aware of how they enter the kidneys can empower us to maintain good hygiene and make informed choices about our health. Additionally, early diagnosis and timely treatment can prevent the infection from progressing to more severe stages. Proper management, which may involve antibiotics and supportive care, is crucial in ensuring a smooth recovery and reducing the risk of complications. By understanding the causes and effective management of kidney infections, we can take proactive steps to safeguard our kidney health and overall well-being.

Common Causes of Kidney Infections

One of the most common causes of these infections is bacteria. Specifically, they usually start in the lower urinary tract, like our bladder, and then travel up to our kidneys, causing trouble along the way. Some of the typical symptoms we might experience include a high fever, chills, back or abdominal pain, frequent urination, a burning sensation during urination, and even cloudy or bloody urine. Knowing these symptoms can help us identify the problem early on.

When it comes to the specific bacteria involved, Escherichia coli (E. coli) takes the leading role, and other bacteria normally hanging out in our intestines can be culprits too. It’s essential to understand how these bacteria make their way to the kidneys, as it can help us take preventive measures. Good hygiene practices, staying well-hydrated, and urinating frequently can be our allies in keeping those pesky bacteria at bay. So, let’s be mindful of these common causes and stay proactive in maintaining our urinary tract health!

Diagnosis and Tests

Diagnosing a kidney infection (pyelonephritis) is a vital step in providing prompt and effective treatment. Healthcare providers use a combination of methods to accurately identify the infection and its underlying cause:

  • Assessment of Symptoms and Medical History: The first step in diagnosis involves listening to the patient’s symptoms and reviewing their medical history. Common indicators of pyelonephritis include high fever, chills, back or abdominal pain, frequent urination, pain or burning sensation during urination, and cloudy or bloody urine. Gathering information about the patient’s previous medical conditions and any urinary tract issues can also provide valuable insights.
  • Physical Examination: A thorough physical examination may be conducted to check for tenderness or sensitivity in the kidney area and assess overall health.
  • Urinalysis: Urinalysis is a crucial test to detect the presence of bacteria, white blood cells, red blood cells, and other substances in the urine. Abnormal findings can indicate a kidney infection.
  • Urine Culture: A urine culture involves growing the bacteria from a urine sample in a lab setting. This test helps identify the specific bacteria causing the infection and determines the most appropriate antibiotic for treatment.
  • Imaging Tests: In some cases, healthcare providers may recommend imaging tests such as ultrasound or CT scan to get a detailed view of the kidneys and the urinary tract. These tests help assess kidney health and identify any abnormalities that might be contributing to the infection.

Management and Treatment

When it comes to management and treatment of infections, the first step usually involves a course of antibiotics. The specific choice of antibiotic depends on the severity of the infection and the type of bacteria causing it. The goal is to eliminate the infection and prevent it from spreading further. In more severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary, where patients can receive intravenous antibiotics and additional supportive care to aid in their recovery.

In addition to the antibiotics, managing the symptoms is also essential. Pain relievers and fever reducers may be recommended to help alleviate discomfort and reduce fever during the recovery process. Proper symptom management not only helps patients feel more comfortable but also allows the body to focus on fighting the infection effectively.

It’s crucial to follow the treatment plan prescribed by healthcare professionals to ensure a successful recovery and to prevent any potential complications. If you suspect an infection or experience concerning symptoms, it’s essential to seek medical attention promptly to receive appropriate management and treatment.

Preventing Kidney Infections

Kidney infections can be quite uncomfortable and even dangerous if left untreated. But the good news is that there are simple steps you can take to prevent them. Let’s explore some easy prevention tips:

  • Maintain Good Hygiene: Personal hygiene plays a crucial role in keeping infections at bay. Make sure to wash your hands regularly, especially before eating and after using the bathroom. For women, wiping from front to back after using the bathroom helps prevent harmful bacteria from entering the urethra.
  • Stay Hydrated and Urinate Frequently: Drinking plenty of water helps keep your urinary system healthy. It’s essential to stay well-hydrated as it can help flush out bacteria from your bladder and urinary tract. After sexual intercourse, try to urinate to help get rid of any potential bacteria that might have entered your urinary system.
  • Don’t Hold Urine for Too Long: Holding in urine for extended periods can create a breeding ground for bacteria. When you feel the urge to urinate, make sure to use the restroom promptly. And when you do, make sure to empty your bladder completely.

Living with a Kidney Infection: Nurturing Your Health and Well-being

Living with a kidney infection requires attention and care to support the healing process and prevent future occurrences. Follow your healthcare provider’s advice carefully, which includes completing the full course of antibiotics. This helps ensure that the infection is completely eradicated.

Maintaining a healthy lifestyle is equally important for kidney health. Stay hydrated by drinking plenty of water and adopt a balanced diet to support your overall well-being.

Regular follow-up appointments with your healthcare providers are crucial. These visits allow them to monitor your kidney function and catch any potential issues early on.

If you experience any symptoms or have concerns about your health, don’t hesitate to seek medical attention promptly. Addressing any problems early can make a significant difference in your recovery and overall health.

In conclusion, it is crucial to approach kidney infections (pyelonephritis) with the seriousness they deserve and follow the prescribed medical advice diligently. Consulting a healthcare professional is vital for personalized guidance and treatment tailored to your specific needs. Your health is invaluable, and by being proactive in preventing kidney infections and seeking timely treatment, when necessary, you can ensure a smooth journey to recovery and overall well-being.

If you are in Abu Dhabi and need expert guidance or treatment for kidney-related concerns, you can trust the experienced Nephrologists and Urologists at Medeor Hospital. To book an appointment, you can call or WhatsApp 80055.

Remember, taking care of your kidneys is a vital step in maintaining your overall health, so don’t hesitate to seek the medical support you need.

Remember, your health matters, and making informed choices today will lead to a healthier tomorrow.

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Taha Al Nouri
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Overcoming Knee Pain: A Journey of Hope and Recovery at Medeor Hospital in Abu Dhabi, UAE

Abu Dhabi One man’s struggle with severe knee pain led him to discover the transformational care at Medeor Hospital, Abu Dhabi. This moving narrative follows his journey to regaining movement and living pain-free after knee replacement surgery. Join us as we learn about his journey and the outstanding orthopedic department at Medeor.

Discovering Medeor’s Orthopedic Department

When the 71-year-old American man sought medical help, he found solace in Medeor’s renowned orthopedic department. Under the expert guidance of Dr. Suresh Gopalan Vadakkoot, a highly skilled Senior Specialist Orthopedic Surgeon, he was introduced to the possibilities of spine surgery, arthroscopy, and joint replacement. Driven by a deep understanding of the man’s condition, Dr. Vadakkoot recommended knee replacement surgery as the optimal solution.

Embarking on a Journey of Hope

With each passing day, the man’s knee pain threatened to diminish his quality of life. However, Medeor Hospital, with its cutting-edge medical technology and experienced physicians, instilled hope within him. Believing in the transformative power of modern medicine, he embarked on a journey to regain his freedom from pain and restore his ability to move without limitations.

Compassionate Care and a Nurturing Environment

From the moment the man entered Medeor, he experienced the compassionate care provided by the dedicated staff at the hospital. The hospital’s warm and welcoming environment, coupled with personalized attention, offered him a sense of comfort and support throughout his treatment. Even the meals served during his stay contributed to his overall well-being, ensuring a holistic healing experience.

Successful Knee Replacement Surgery

Under the expert guidance of Dr. Vadakkoot and his skilled team, the patient underwent a successful left knee replacement surgery. Prior to the procedure, comprehensive check-ups were conducted to address any cardiac issues and diabetes, ensuring the best possible outcome. This meticulous approach further solidified his trust in Medeor’s orthopedic department, showcasing their commitment to patient safety and well-being.

Transforming Lives: The Inspiring Journey of a 71-Year-Old American Man’s Orthopedic Transformation at Medeor Hospital Abu Dhabi

A Supportive Family at Medeor

Being alone in Abu Dhabi, the man found a supportive family at Medeor. The compassionate staff, including the attentive nurses and expert doctors, became his pillars of strength throughout his journey. Medeor Hospital went above and beyond to ensure his physical and emotional well-being, making him feel cared for and supported during his recovery.

Embracing a Pain-Free Life

With the surgery behind him, the man now enjoys a life free from debilitating knee pain. The exceptional care provided by Medeor’s orthopedic department played a vital role in his successful recovery. Just one day after the surgery, he took his first triumphant steps, a testament to the transformative power of knee replacement surgery and the expertise of the medical team at Medeor.

Equipped with newfound hope and mobility, the American man continues to visit Medeor for regular check-ups. Inspired by his incredible journey, he now contemplates getting his right knee replaced, confident in the positive impact it will have on his quality of life. Medeor’s unwavering commitment to his well-being ensures they remain his trusted healthcare provider for orthopedic needs.

Advanced orthopedic care & compassionate support

The story of this 71-year-old American man’s journey at Medeor Hospital in Abu Dhabi is a testament to the power of advanced orthopedic care and compassionate support. Medeor’s orthopedic department combines state-of-the-art technology, skilled surgeons like Dr. Vadakkoot, and a nurturing environment to provide patients with transformative solutions for overcoming knee pain. As this man embraces a life free from limitations, his story is an inspiring example of the possibilities that await those seeking exceptional orthopedic care in the UAE.

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Mohamed Elbaz
Mohamed Turky
Suresh Gopalan Vadakkoot
Ashootosh Batra
Shibu Varghese

Exploring the 5 Most Common Dermatologic Conditions: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment

5 Most Common Dermatologic Conditions

5 Most Common Dermatologic Conditions

Our skin is the largest organ of the body and plays a vital role in protecting us from external factors. However, it is also susceptible to various dermatologic conditions that can affect our overall well-being. In this blog, we will delve into the five most common dermatologic conditions, shedding light on their causes, symptoms, and available treatment options.


Acne is a widespread dermatologic condition that affects individuals of all ages, especially during adolescence. It occurs when hair follicles become clogged with oil and dead skin cells, leading to the formation of pimples, blackheads, and whiteheads. Factors such as hormonal changes, genetics, and certain medications can contribute to the development of acne. Treatment options include topical creams, oral medications, and lifestyle modifications such as maintaining a proper skincare.


Eczema, also known as atopic dermatitis, is a chronic inflammatory condition that causes dry, itchy, and inflamed skin. It often appears in patches on the face, hands, elbows, and knees. Eczema can be triggered by allergens, irritants, stress, and changes in temperature or humidity. Treatment involves moisturizing the skin, avoiding triggers, using topical corticosteroids or immunomodulators, and practicing good skincare habits.


Psoriasis is a chronic autoimmune condition characterized by the rapid buildup of skin cells, resulting in thick, red patches covered with silvery scales. It commonly affects the scalp, elbows, knees, and lower back. The exact cause of psoriasis is unknown, but it is thought to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Treatment options range from topical creams and phototherapy to systemic medications and biologic therapies, depending on the severity of the condition.


Dermatitis refers to inflammation of the skin that can occur due to various factors such as allergens, irritants, or exposure to certain substances. Contact dermatitis, caused by direct contact with irritants or allergens, leads to redness, itching, and sometimes blisters. Atopic dermatitis, also known as eczema, falls under this category. Treatment involves identifying and avoiding triggers, using topical corticosteroids, and practicing proper skincare.


Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory skin condition that primarily affects the face, causing redness, visible blood vessels, bumps, and sometimes eye irritation. Triggers for rosacea can include sunlight, heat, spicy foods, alcohol, and stress. While the exact cause is unknown, factors such as genetics and abnormalities in the immune system may contribute to its development. Treatment options include topical medications, oral antibiotics, laser therapy, and lifestyle modifications to manage triggers.

Book an Appointment with Our Expert Dermatologist

Dermatologic conditions can significantly impact our quality of life and self-confidence. Understanding the most common conditions, their causes, and available treatment options is essential for effective management.

At Medeor Hospital, Abu Dhabi, we have a dedicated team of dermatology specialists who are experienced in diagnosing and treating a wide range of dermatologic conditions. Our expert panel of doctors is committed to providing comprehensive care and helping patients achieve healthy and radiant skin. Whether you are dealing with acne, eczema, psoriasis, dermatitis, or rosacea, our dermatologists will work closely with you to develop a tailored treatment approach that meets your specific needs.

Don’t let dermatologic conditions hinder your well-being. Call 80055 to Contact Medeor Hospital, Abu Dhabi, today to schedule a consultation with one of our skilled dermatologists and take the first step towards healthier skin.

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Senthil Prabahar Samiraj
Iba Sid Ahmed Khalid Mohamed Zaroug
James Zachariah Panakkal
Nermine Mohamed Abdou Ismail

Anal Fissure – Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment

An anal fissure is a small tear in the lining of the anus. It can be caused by chronic constipation or diarrhea, but it can also happen after an injury to your anal area.

The pain associated with an anal fissure is often described as a sharp or burning sensation, which may worsen with bowel movements and when sitting on hard surfaces.

Anal fissures are typically treated with topical creams and ointments, but your doctor may recommend more invasive treatments, such as surgery if these don’t work.

What Causes an Anal Fissure?

Anal fissures are common, especially for people with hemorrhoids (swollen veins in the anus). Other causes of anal fissures include:

  • Constipation
  • Diarrhea
  • Chronic constipation or diarrhea
  • Heavy lifting
  • Pregnancy
  • Surgery on your bowels or anus

What are the Symptoms of an Anal Fissure?

The following is a list of symptoms that may indicate the presence of an anal fissure.

  • Pain and tenderness in the anal area
  • Bleeding from the rectum, which may occur when you pass stool
  • A feeling of having not completely emptied your bowels after defecating
  • A sensation that something is still inside your rectum after you have passed bowel movements

What are the Risk Factors for an Anal Fissure?

The risk factors for anal fissures include:

  • Diarrhea
  • Constipation
  • Straining during bowel movements
  • Pregnancy and childbirth
  • Anal intercourse
  • Contraction of HIV/AIDS or other sexually transmitted infections
  • Any history of trauma to the area
  • Inflammatory bowel disease
  • Crohn’s disease
  • Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
  • Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)

What are the Complications of an Anal Fissure?

Anal fissures can be painful and lead to further complications if left untreated. Some of the complications include:

  • Painful defecation
  • Excessive bleeding
  • Fecal incontinence (involuntary leakage of solid or liquid stool)
  • Anal fistula
  • Anal abscess 

How is it Diagnosed?

Anal fissures are usually diagnosed by your healthcare provider examining the anus and rectum. During the exam, they may use a mirror to look at the inside of their rectum. To diagnose an anal fissure, your healthcare provider will likely ask questions about your symptoms and past medical history. They may also want to know if you have had this problem before. Your doctor may also perform other tests to ensure you do not have other conditions causing similar symptoms. Your doctor may use one or more of the following tests to diagnose an anal fissure:

Rectal Exam: This test allows your healthcare provider to check for any abnormalities in or around the rectum, such as swelling or irritation.

Anoscopy (Proctoscopy): An anoscope is a thin tube with a light on its tip that allows your healthcare provider to look at the lining of your anus and rectum using magnification. This test can help identify any tears or inflammation in these areas. Stool Test: Your stool sample can be tested for blood or other signs of infection.

Sigmoidoscopy (looking inside the lower part of the colon with a flexible tube called a sigmoidoscope) to check the causes of bleeding from an anal fissure.

Colonoscopy involves inserting a flexible tube into your rectum to inspect the entire colon.

How is it Treated?

With appropriate home treatment, anal fissures can often heal within a few weeks. Increase your intake of fiber and fluids to help keep your stool soft. Soak in warm water for 10 to 20 minutes several times a day, especially after bowel movements. This can aid in sphincter relaxation and healing. If your symptoms persist, you will almost certainly require additional treatment. 

Nonsurgical treatments 

Your doctor may advise you to do the following: 

Nitroglycerin is applied externally (Rectiv). This can promote healing by increasing blood flow to the fissure. It can also help to relax the anal sphincter. When other conservative measures fail, nitroglycerin is widely regarded as the treatment of choice. Headaches, which can be severe, are possible side effects. 

Pain relief may be provided by topical anesthetic creams such as lidocaine (Xylocaine). 

Injection of onabotulinumtoxinA (Botox) to paralyze the anal sphincter muscle and relax spasms. 

Blood pressure medications like nifedipine or diltiazem can help relax the anal sphincter. These medications are typically applied to the skin but can also be taken orally. However, when taken orally, the side effects can be more severe. These medications may be used when nitroglycerin is ineffective or causes significant side effects. 


If you have a chronic anal fissure that is not responding to other treatments, or if your symptoms are severe, your doctor may suggest surgery. A procedure known as lateral internal sphincterotomy is typically performed by doctors (LIS). A small portion of the anal sphincter muscle is cut during LIS. This technique may aid in the promotion of healing as well as the reduction of spasms and pain.

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Ali Sulieman Hassan Sulieman
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Yusuf Gunay
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Dildar Hussain

Epilepsy – Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment

Epilepsy is a neurological disorder that causes seizures. These seizures can be very different from one another, with some only lasting a few seconds while others last minutes or hours. Epilepsy can be caused by injury to the brain, stroke, brain tumor, genetic mutation, or other factors. In some cases, there is no known cause of epilepsy.

Epilepsy is characterized by recurrent seizures that are unprovoked by an obvious external stimulus and result in abnormal electrical activity in the brain. The severity of these seizures varies widely among patients: some experience minor twitching or loss of awareness for just a few seconds, while others may experience more severe effects such as loss of consciousness and convulsions (shaking).

What are Seizures?

Seizures occur when there is an abnormal electrical discharge in the brain. This causes changes in how the brain functions, leading to a temporary loss of consciousness or control over body movements.

What are the Types of Seizures?

There are many different types of seizures. There are also many different ways to classify them.

There are two broad categories: generalized and partial.

Generalized seizures involve the entire brain, while partial seizures affect just one brain area.

These partial seizures can be further classified into simple and complex. Simple partial seizures occur in only one part of the brain, while complex partial seizures involve more than one part of the brain.

Simple partial seizures can be further divided into other groups, such as sensory, motor, autonomic and psychic. When someone has a seizure, there are two types: epileptic and non-epileptic.

An abnormal electrical discharge causes epileptic seizures in the brain caused by a genetic defect or other factors. In contrast, non-epileptic seizures are caused by another condition that mimics epilepsy but is unrelated to it (such as heart problems). To help determine what kind of seizure you may be experiencing, you should note how long it lasts, what part of your body it affects, and whether or not any other symptoms like headache or nausea/vomiting accompany it.

What are the Symptoms of Epilepsy?

Symptoms of epilepsy vary based on age and the brain area affected. They can include:

  • facial twitches or tics
  • loss of consciousness
  • temporary loss of movement on one side of the body
  • temporary inability to understand what’s being said or written
  • loss of bladder control

How is Epilepsy Diagnosed?

The conditions required specialists to help make a diagnosis, including: 

Neurologist – An expert in disorders affecting the nervous system, including the brain and spinal cord 

Neurosurgeon – A doctor who specializes in surgery on the brain, spinal cord, and nerves 

Psychiatrist – A doctor who treats mental health conditions

The diagnosis of epilepsy is made in two steps:

first, a doctor must rule out other possible causes of the seizures, such as a stroke or tumor; then, they will consider what kind of seizures you have and their frequency to determine whether or not you have epilepsy. The doctor will ask you about your symptoms, including how often the seizures occur and what happens before, during, and after them. They may also want to know about any family history of epilepsy or other significant medical conditions. The doctor may also conduct tests to rule out other causes of your symptoms.

These tests can include an electroencephalogram (EEG), which measures electrical activity in the brain with electrodes attached to your scalp; magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses radio waves and magnetic fields to generate detailed images of internal organs; and computed tomography scan (CT scan), which uses X-rays to create images of structures inside the body.

How is Epilepsy Treated?

There are many different ways to treat epilepsy, and a doctor will work with you to determine the best treatment for your specific condition. Here are some of the most common methods:

Medications – A doctor will prescribe medications to help control seizures. The medication prescribed depends on what type of seizure you have, as well as other factors such as age, medical history, and lifestyle. Some medications have side effects, so discuss these with your doctor before starting any new medication regimen.

Surgery – Sometimes, surgery is necessary to correct issues that cause seizures or worsen them (such as scar tissue on the brain). Surgery may also be used if there is no other way to control your seizures besides medication. The most common types of surgery include:

Removal of a portion of the brain causing seizures (called lobectomy). This surgery usually requires removing part or all of one hemisphere, depending on where the problem area is located within that hemisphere’s structure.

Removal or destruction (ablation) of a small area within area known as Broca’s area causes seizures in certain patients; this is done using stereotactic.

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Thyroid Antibodies Test

Why do I Need a Thyroid Antibodies Test?

The thyroid antibodies test is a blood test that checks for the presence of thyroid-damaging antibodies in your blood. 

What are Thyroid Antibodies? 

The thyroid gland is an important organ that regulates metabolism and protein synthesis in the body. Thyroid antibodies are proteins the immune system produces in response to thyroid tissue as an auto-immune manifestation. Autoimmune diseases are caused by the body’s immune system mistakenly attacking its tissues. Autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) causes cellular damage and alters thyroid gland function. Autoimmune diseases are prevalent in the population, and AITD is one of the most common representatives. 

Alterations in thyroid gland function result from stimulating or blocking autoantibodies on the thyroid cells. Three principal thyroid auto-antigens are involved in AITD. These are thyroperoxidase (TPO), thyroglobulin (Tg), and the TSH receptor. 

Thyroid autoantibodies are frequently detected in patients with AITD and subjects without manifest thyroid dysfunction. 

TPOAb and/or TgAb are frequently present in the blood of patients with AITD. However, occasionally patients with AITD have negative thyroid autoantibody test results. TRAb is present in most patients with hyperthyroidism of Graves’ disease or a history of it. The presence of TRAb is a risk factor for potential thyroid dysfunction affecting the fetus or the newborn baby during pregnancy. 

What is a Thyroid Antibodies Test? 

A thyroid antibodies test is a laboratory test that measures the presence and levels of antibodies in the thyroid gland. The presence of thyroid antibodies is not necessarily an indicator of a problem—it can also be a typical result of infection, injury, or pregnancy. But when there is an increase in thyroid antibodies over time, it may indicate autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD). 

The prevalence of thyroid autoantibodies is increased when patients have non-thyroid autoimmune diseases such as type 1 diabetes and pernicious anemia. Aging is also associated with the appearance of thyroid autoantibodies and increased prevalence of AITD. The clinical significance of low levels of thyroid autoantibodies in euthyroid subjects is still unknown, but high TPOAb is likely to be a risk factor for future thyroid dysfunction.

What are the Different Types of Thyroid Antibodies?

Several different types of antibodies can be present in the thyroid. The most common are, 

Anti-Thyroid Peroxidase (anti-TPO): 

Anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO) is an antibody found in some people with Hashimoto’s disease, the commonest form of AITD. The autoimmune-mediated inflammation in this AITD eventually leads to hypothyroidism. These antibodies do not necessarily mean that you will develop hypothyroidism. It is still significant, even in those with normal thyroid function, since women with this antibody could have recurrent miscarriages. Hence gynecologists regularly test their patients for this. Anti-TPO could be positive in Graves’s disease as well.  

Anti-Thyroglobulin (anti-Tg)

Anti-Thyroglobulin (anti-Tg) autoantibody is important because occasional cases with Hashimoto’s disease could have only the Anti-Tg positive; the anti-TPO could be negative. Anti-Tg could be positive in Graves’s disease as well. In addition, the anti-Tg is a useful test in the monitoring and follow-up of treated cases of thyroid cancer. 

TSH Receptor Autoantibodies (TRAb) 

The TSH Receptor Autoantibodies (TRAb) bind to the site of action of the TSH (from the pituitary gland) at the thyroid cells. Such antibodies could either stimulate or block thyroid function. The presence of TRAb may distinguish Graves’ disease from other causes of thyrotoxicosis – such as subacute or post-partum thyroiditis and toxic nodular goiter. 

When Should I Get the Test? 

The thyroid antibody test is used to detect your body’s response to a breakdown in the thyroid gland. It can diagnose or rule out autoimmune thyroid diseases (such as Hashimoto’s and Graves’s).  

Untreated AITD could lead to abnormal blood lipids, blood pressure, heart disease, and neurological complications. Hence early diagnosis is desirable to prevent complications and irreversible sequels.  

The most common reason you might get the thyroid antibody test is that your doctor suspects you have an autoimmune thyroid condition. Still, they usually will need more information before diagnosing it.  

  • Symptoms of Hashimoto’s Disease
    • Fatigue 
    • Weight gain and swelling 
    • Constipation  
    • Muscle aches and weakness 
    • Tingling on the hands 
    • Hyperlipidemia 
  • Symptoms of Grave’s Disease 
    • A bulging eye  
    • Weight loss despite increased appetite  
    • Excessive sweating 
    • Tachycardia or palpitations 
    • Tremors or muscle spasms in the hands and feet

What Happens During the Test? 

A healthcare professional will draw blood from your arm during a thyroid antibodies test. The blood will then be sent to a lab where it is tested for antibodies that can indicate autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD). The test results are returned to your doctor, who will review them and determine if further evaluation or treatment is needed. 

What do the Results Mean?

Your findings could indicate one of the following: 

Negative: There were no thyroid antibodies discovered. This suggests that your thyroid issues are probably not brought on by an autoimmune condition. 

Positive TPO or Tg antibodies. You may have Hashimoto’s disease if this is the case. 

Most sufferers of Hashimoto’s disease have high concentrations of either one or both anti-TPO, antiTg. 

Positive TSH receptor antibodies. You may have Graves disease if this is the case. 

The thyroid Antibodies Test is one of the most accurate and efficient methods for identifying potential thyroid problems. It is a way to identify potential issues before they actually develop.  

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Christina Johnsson
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Prostate Cancer: Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment

Prostate Cancer

What is Prostate Cancer? 

Prostate cancer is cancer that starts in the prostate gland. The prostate gland is located below the bladder, in front of the rectum.  

It produces a fluid that makes up part of semen. The prostate is a walnut-sized gland that surrounds part of the urethra (the tube that carries urine from the bladder out of the body).  

The urethra passes through the center of the prostate gland. It usually starts in cells in one or more areas of this gland. 

It is the most common cancer in men and the second most common cause of death from cancer among men. 

What Causes Prostate Cancer? 

The exact cause is unknown. It’s believed that many factors may contribute to its development, including age, race/ethnicity, family history and genetics, diet and nutrition, weight gain and obesity, physical activity level, smoking history, and alcohol consumption patterns. 

What are the Risk Factors of Prostate Cancer? 

The risk factors include: 

Age: Prostate cancer is more common in men over 50.  

Ethnicity: African-American men have a higher incidence than white men.  

Asian men have a lower rate of prostate cancer than white or African American men.  

Family History: Men who have a father or brother with prostate cancer are at greater risk for  

developing it themselves.  

Diet: A diet high in fat and low in fruits and vegetables may increase the risk of developing the condition by up to 30 percent over 20 years. 

Obesity: Obesity increases your risk of developing several types of cancer, including prostate cancer. 

What are the Signs & Symptoms of Prostate Cancer? 

The signs and symptoms can vary from man to man. Some men may never experience symptoms, while others may notice changes in their urinary habits or sexual function. Some of the most common signs and symptoms include: 

  • Frequent urination, especially at night 
  • Weak or interrupted urine flow 
  • Difficulty starting urination or holding back urine 
  • A feeling that you have to urinate right away; an urgent need to urinate, even if it’s not full 
  • Blood in your urine or semen 

How is it Diagnosed?  

The most common test to diagnose the condition is a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test. The PSA test measures the level of PSA in a man’s blood, which can indicate the presence of prostate cancer. If your doctor orders this test and it returns positive, they will order additional tests to determine whether or not you have cancer. Other tests that may be used to diagnose prostate cancer include:  

Digital rectal exam (DRE): In this exam, your doctor will insert a gloved finger into your rectum and feel for lumps or irregularities. This test is often uncomfortable and invasive, but it can be very effective at helping doctors determine whether or not there is something wrong with your prostate gland.  

A prostate biopsy involves removing a tissue sample from your prostate gland so a pathologist can examine it under a microscope. You may need further treatment, such as surgery or radiation therapy if abnormal cells are present. 

How is it Treated? 

Treatment options include: 

Surgery: Surgery removes all or part of the prostate gland. This can be done through either open surgery or a minimally invasive procedure called robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery (RALP).  

Radiation Therapy: Radiation therapy uses high-energy X-rays to kill cancerous cells in your prostate gland. It also helps relieve symptoms caused by the condition.  

Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy uses drugs to kill cancer cells or stop them from growing and dividing. During chemotherapy, you’ll receive medicine intravenously (through an IV line) by injection into a vein or under your skin (topical).  

Hormone Therapy: Hormonal therapy blocks the production of male hormones, which reduce testosterone levels in men with advanced prostate cancer. Hormonal treatments include medications such as leuprolide acetate and flutamide; topical gels; injections into muscle, and pellets implanted under the skin that slowly release hormones over time. 

Early detection is key to surviving prostate cancer. The earlier the diagnosis, the more effective the treatment can be. At Medeor Hospital, Our team of board-certified urologists and a multi-disciplinary team of experts at Medeor Hospital UAE are equipped with the latest diagnostic technology to provide the most advanced care for treating prostate cancer.  

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Diabetic Nephropathy

Diabetic Nephropathy is a disease that develops in the kidneys when they are damaged by diabetes. It is characterized by increased protein in the urine and, eventually, kidney failure. 

How does Diabetes Cause Kidney Damage? 

When you have diabetes, your body cannot regulate blood sugar levels as well as it should. This causes high blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia) that can damage your kidneys over time. High blood sugar levels cause oxidative stress and inflammation in your body. These processes contribute to kidney damage by damaging the blood vessels that supply blood to your kidneys and impairing their function overall.  Over time, this damage can lead to chronic kidney disease (CKD). 

What Are the Symptoms of Diabetic Nephropathy?  

The symptoms of diabetic nephropathy include:  

  • Blood in the urine (hematuria) 
  • Swelling in the legs and feet (edema) 
  • Painful urination (dysuria) 
  • Frequent urination (polyuria) 

What Are the Different Types of Diabetic Nephropathy? 

There are different types of diabetic nephropathy:  

Acute tubular necrosis – This type of diabetic nephropathy occurs when there is damage to the small blood vessels within the kidneys.  

Fibrosing glomerulopathy – This type of diabetic nephropathy involves scarring and thickening of the walls of the tiny blood vessels that filter waste from your body, which leads to kidney failure.  

Nephrotic syndrome – This diabetic nephropathy involves excessive protein loss in urine because of damaged kidney filters. 

What Are the Different Stages of Diabetic Nephropathy? 

The stages of diabetic nephropathy are broken down by the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), which is the amount of water filtered from your blood each minute by your kidneys. A normal GFR is around 120 mL/min per 1.73 m2 body surface area.  

Stage 1: Kidney damage present but normal kidney function and a GFR of 90% or above.  

Stage 2: Kidney damage with some loss of function and a GFR of 60–89%.  

Stage 3: Mild to severe loss of function and a GFR of 30–59%. 

Stage 4: Severe loss of function and GFR of 15–29%.  

Stage 5: Kidney failure and a GFR of under 15%. 

What Are the Risk Factors?

The risk factors of diabetic nephropathy include:  

  • High blood glucose levels 
  • Obesity and being overweight  
  • Hypertension (high blood pressure) Hyperlipidemia (high triglycerides and low levels of HDL cholesterol) 
  • Insulin resistance 

How is it Diagnosed? 

Diabetic Nephropathy is diagnosed through lab tests, physical exams, and imaging.  

Lab tests will include a urine test and a blood test. The urine test will check for protein in the urine. 

If there is a protein in the urine, it could be a sign of this condition. 

The blood test will check your kidney function. This can also help detect if you have the condition or are getting worse. 

Your nephrologist may also order an imaging test like an ultrasound or CT scan to look at your kidneys and see how well they work if they are suspected of being damaged by diabetes. 

How is it Treated? 

It is treated with several different medications and therapies.  

First, your doctor will want to monitor your blood pressure, cholesterol, and blood sugar levels.  

If necessary, they may prescribe medication to control these factors. 

Second, your doctor may recommend that you lose weight and exercise regularly.  

If you cannot manage this independently, the doctor may refer you to a dietician or physical therapist for assistance.  

Third, if necessary, the physician will suggest that you take medications such as ACE inhibitors or ARBs. These drugs can help prevent or slow down damage to your kidneys.  

Finally, if none of these effective treatments control your symptoms, the doctor may recommend dialysis or kidney transplantation. 

Everyone with diabetes is at risk for diabetic nephropathy. Early diagnosis and treatment could mean the difference between kidney failure and a normal, healthy life. 

Our board-certified nephrologists at Medeor Hospital, UAE, have the experience, skill, and knowledge to treat all stages of diabetic nephropathy.  

They will help you understand your condition and develop a treatment plan that works for you to help you manage your condition and keep your kidneys healthy. 

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Diabetic Eye Disease

Diabetic eye disease is a complication that’s common in people with diabetes. It can lead to vision loss or even blindness. There are four major types of diabetic eye disease:  

Diabetic Retinopathy  

It is the most common form of diabetic eye disease. It causes blood vessels in the retina to leak or swell, leading to blurred vision and even blindness.  

Diabetic Macular Edema 

It occurs when fluid builds up under the macula (the part of your retina responsible for seeing fine details). This can cause blurred vision or loss of central vision.  


It is a condition where increased pressure inside the eye gradually damages the optic nerve, causing loss of peripheral vision and eventually blindness. 


They are clouds that develop over the lens of your eye—they make it harder to see clearly because they blur your vision and make colors less vibrant. 

How Does Diabetes Affect My Eyes? 

Diabetes affects your eyes in many ways. The most common symptom is blurry vision, which can cause dry eyes, cataracts, and macular degeneration. 

How Common is Diabetic Eye Disease? 

Diabetic eye disease is very common, with approximately 70% of people who have diabetes developing some form of eye disease. The risk of developing it increases with age, duration of diabetes, and blood sugar control. 

Who is More Likely to Develop Diabetic Eye Disease? 

People who are at high risk for diabetic eye disease include:  

  • People with type 1 diabetes 
  • People with type 2 diabetes who have had diabetes for more than 15 years  
  • Those who have had a previous eye infection or surgery 
  • Those with a family history of eye disease, especially retinopathy, glaucoma, or cataracts  
  • People who have high blood pressure  
  • People who have high cholesterol 

What are the Symptoms of Diabetic Eye Disease? 

Symptoms of diabetic eye disease include: 

  • Blurred vision 
  • Excessive tearing or redness 
  • Pain or pressure in your eyes 
  • Distorted vision 
  • Spots or floaters (tiny dots that appear in your field of vision) 

When Should You See a Doctor? 

If you have any of the following symptoms, you should see a doctor immediately: 

  • Vision changes such as blurriness, loss of side vision, or double vision 
  • Feeling like there’s something in your eye 
  • Pain in your eyes or extreme dryness 
  • Redness or swelling around the eyes 
  • Increased sensitivity to light 

How Do Doctors Diagnose Eye Problems from Diabetes? 

An ophthalmologist often diagnoses diabetic eye disease. They use a variety of tests to determine the cause of your symptoms and whether they are related to diabetes.  

Visual Acuity Test measures how well you see at different distances. You will be asked to read letters on an eye chart at different distances.  

Slit Lamp Examination – this test uses light from a microscope to inspect the inside of your eyes. It helps doctors identify changes caused by diabetes that may be causing vision problems. It also allows them to look for signs of other diseases, such as glaucoma or cataracts, that could affect your vision if left untreated. 

How do Doctors Treat Diabetic Eye Disease? 

Fortunately, several treatments for diabetic eye disease can help you get your vision back on track.  

Medicine – Doctors often prescribe medications to help reduce the chances of vision loss from diabetic eye disease. These medicines can be taken as pills or injections. Some are injected directly into the eye, and others are taken orally as pills. 

Laser Treatment – If you have diabetic retinopathy (DR), laser treatment may help prevent further damage to your retina by slowing down or stopping bleeding from small blood vessels in your eye. However, even if laser treatment stops bleeding from these blood vessels and prevents further vision loss from DR, it will not reverse any existing damage done by other symptoms, such as floaters or flashes of light in your vision (called photopsia). 

Vitrectomy: A vitrectomy is an operation that removes fluid from inside your eyeball (called vitreous humor) and replaces it with saline solution so that your retina can be examined under magnification for signs of injury caused by diabetes. 

Cataract Lens Surgery: There are two types of cataract surgery: phacoemulsification and extracapsular extraction (ECCE). These surgeries use different lenses to replace cloudy ones in the eye.  

Phacoemulsification uses ultrasonic energy to break the lens into small pieces removed with suction. 

ECCE uses scissors to remove the outer part of the lens capsule and any fragments that may have broken off during surgery. Both procedures take less than 30 minutes. 

After surgery, patients will need glasses or contact lenses until their vision improves enough for them to see well without them. 

What Can I Do to Protect My Eyes? 

You can do several things to protect your eyes if you have diabetes.  

First, it’s important to keep your blood glucose levels on target. High blood glucose can damage the blood vessels in your eyes, increasing your risk of eye disease.  

Second, get regular eye exams as part of your diabetes management plan—at least once a year. If you have diabetes, it’s especially important to catch eye problems early because they can lead to vision loss.  

Third, wear comfortable glasses and sunglasses outdoors, even on cloudy days. UV light can still damage your eyes even when the skies are gray or overcast. 

In Conclusion, diabetic eye disease is a serious issue that can cause significant damage to your vision and your quality of life. If you believe you may have a diabetic eye disease. If you or someone you know is suffering from diabetic eye disease, it’s important to seek help from an ophthalmologist.  

Our expert team of ophthalmologists and diabetes experts offers a wide range of services, from diagnosis and treatment to prevention and follow-up care, so that you can continue to live life without worrying about the potential health risks associated with diabetes. 

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