Prostate Cancer: Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment

Prostate Cancer

What is Prostate Cancer? 

Prostate cancer is cancer that starts in the prostate gland. The prostate gland is located below the bladder, in front of the rectum.  

It produces a fluid that makes up part of semen. The prostate is a walnut-sized gland that surrounds part of the urethra (the tube that carries urine from the bladder out of the body).  

The urethra passes through the center of the prostate gland. It usually starts in cells in one or more areas of this gland. 

It is the most common cancer in men and the second most common cause of death from cancer among men. 

What Causes Prostate Cancer? 

The exact cause is unknown. It’s believed that many factors may contribute to its development, including age, race/ethnicity, family history and genetics, diet and nutrition, weight gain and obesity, physical activity level, smoking history, and alcohol consumption patterns. 

What are the Risk Factors of Prostate Cancer? 

The risk factors include: 

Age: Prostate cancer is more common in men over 50.  

Ethnicity: African-American men have a higher incidence than white men.  

Asian men have a lower rate of prostate cancer than white or African American men.  

Family History: Men who have a father or brother with prostate cancer are at greater risk for  

developing it themselves.  

Diet: A diet high in fat and low in fruits and vegetables may increase the risk of developing the condition by up to 30 percent over 20 years. 

Obesity: Obesity increases your risk of developing several types of cancer, including prostate cancer. 

What are the Signs & Symptoms of Prostate Cancer? 

The signs and symptoms can vary from man to man. Some men may never experience symptoms, while others may notice changes in their urinary habits or sexual function. Some of the most common signs and symptoms include: 

  • Frequent urination, especially at night 
  • Weak or interrupted urine flow 
  • Difficulty starting urination or holding back urine 
  • A feeling that you have to urinate right away; an urgent need to urinate, even if it’s not full 
  • Blood in your urine or semen 

How is it Diagnosed?  

The most common test to diagnose the condition is a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test. The PSA test measures the level of PSA in a man’s blood, which can indicate the presence of prostate cancer. If your doctor orders this test and it returns positive, they will order additional tests to determine whether or not you have cancer. Other tests that may be used to diagnose prostate cancer include:  

Digital rectal exam (DRE): In this exam, your doctor will insert a gloved finger into your rectum and feel for lumps or irregularities. This test is often uncomfortable and invasive, but it can be very effective at helping doctors determine whether or not there is something wrong with your prostate gland.  

A prostate biopsy involves removing a tissue sample from your prostate gland so a pathologist can examine it under a microscope. You may need further treatment, such as surgery or radiation therapy if abnormal cells are present. 

How is it Treated? 

Treatment options include: 

Surgery: Surgery removes all or part of the prostate gland. This can be done through either open surgery or a minimally invasive procedure called robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery (RALP).  

Radiation Therapy: Radiation therapy uses high-energy X-rays to kill cancerous cells in your prostate gland. It also helps relieve symptoms caused by the condition.  

Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy uses drugs to kill cancer cells or stop them from growing and dividing. During chemotherapy, you’ll receive medicine intravenously (through an IV line) by injection into a vein or under your skin (topical).  

Hormone Therapy: Hormonal therapy blocks the production of male hormones, which reduce testosterone levels in men with advanced prostate cancer. Hormonal treatments include medications such as leuprolide acetate and flutamide; topical gels; injections into muscle, and pellets implanted under the skin that slowly release hormones over time. 

Early detection is key to surviving prostate cancer. The earlier the diagnosis, the more effective the treatment can be. At Medeor Hospital, Our team of board-certified urologists and a multi-disciplinary team of experts at Medeor Hospital UAE are equipped with the latest diagnostic technology to provide the most advanced care for treating prostate cancer.  

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